Aquaculture is one of the sources that are responsible for food and commercial products. It involves breeding, rearing, and also harvesting aquatic animals such as fish, shrimp, shellfish, etc. Since the demand for seafood is increasing year by year, the technology used in culture also needs to be more effective and sustainable to achieve more production. There are many new technologies currently being applied for Aquaculture that use the elements of circular technologies such as Recirculated Aquaculture System (RAS), Integrated Aquaculture Recirculation System (IARS), and Biofloc system.
The first element of circular technologies in aquaculture is by developing based on recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). RAS is well known in the aquaculture sector since it helps to save more water and cost production. Due to the expansion of biotechnology, aquatic organisms can also be grown in RAS, for example, the Australian red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) (Von Martens, 1868). Some more species are usually used to a culture in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) which is African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ), Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ), etc. The design of RAS is pretty simple: culture tank, mechanical filter, biofilter, oxygen enrichment unit, and the last one is Uv light.
Next is Aquaponic. Aquaponics is a technology that is a subset of a broader agricultural approach known as integrated agri-aquaculture systems (IAAS) (Gooley and Gavine 2003). It's a culture that puts plants and fish in one system without wasting the water. The water circulates in one system and the facilities such as pumps use the energy from electricity to run the system. Aquaponics is now considered a new and emerging industry with a relevant place in the broader, global agricultural production context and there are several variations of the technology of integrating ﬁsh culture with aquatic plant culture that is collectively deﬁned under the aquaponics banner or name (Knaus and Palm 2017).
Next is the reservoir. Circular technologies in the world are developing. The method to culture fish is by using floating cages in reservoirs. There are many benefits of culturing fish in a reservoir which is the growth rate of fish is faster and the feeding cycle is shorter. The management of freshwater reservoirs is similar to that of small-sized lakes, except that feeding, manuring, and stocking rates approach the standards adopted in fish ponds if the reservoir is small. Since the cage meshes, the fishes inside have fewer chances of being attacked by predators. This system is cost-effective since it requires less investment.
Overall it might be said that circular technologies are really helpful to generate more production in the aquaculture sector. It should be noted that the aquatic recirculation system allows sustainable water management. In addition, the fact that this system is energetically sustained through renewable energies and solar radiation makes it considerable and replicable. Moreover, it aims to environment-respectful food production of high economic performance, which is one of the current concerns of the food industry and could be resolved with this. ( Laso, J.; García-Herrero et al , 2018).
1) Aquaponics Plans (2009). Creating a Sustainable Food Supply Through Aquaponics. Available online at: http://aquaponicsplan.com/creating-a-sustainable-food-supply-through-aquaponics.
2) Blancheton, J.P. 2002. Developments in the Recirculation System for Mediterranean Species. Science Direct, Aquaculture Engineering Volume 22
3) Gooley GJ, Gavine FM (2003) Integrated agri-aquaculture systems: a resource handbook for Australian industry development. RIRDC Publication No. 03/012
4) Knaus U, Palm HW (2017) Effects of the ﬁsh species choice on vegetables in aquaponics under spring-summer conditions in northern Germany (Mecklenburg Western Pomerania). Aquaculture 473:62–73.